11. Jesus as god: the church’s working model of the divinity of Jesus, which is binding doctrine,

S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador
S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador

was the philosophical model of the complete separation of the divine and human nature of Jesus.

This model corresponds with the worshipping of the Roman emperor Augustus. His human nature was never doubted, but, in the activities of Augustus the human being, the people saw the divine powers acting and worshipped Augustus like a god.

In the doctrine of the church the human nature of Jesus has been kept philosophically untouched. This included, and still includes, his suffering and his integration into the causality of the world, which can be searched for and explained.

In the activities of Jesus as a human being the Christians saw – as the Romans did in Augustus – benevolent acts of divinity; they worshipped him as a god from the start.


6. Groups of Christian women, Mary, refused the damnatio memoriae,

S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador
S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador

which was connected with the crucifixion and supported an honourable burial, so that after the death the soul could settle down into the underworld, see Sophocles, Antigone. For annual celebrations of the yearly passion of Jesus a cenotaph (empty tomb) was erected.

7. Easter: the church of John, which had seen Jesus as example for a new beginning in one’s lifetime, had visions of Jesus. Here the kingdom of God was internalised. Jesus made possible an internal, psychological new beginning.

8.  Pentecost: in the era of Pisces which was just beginning, the church of Peter saw a sign of Heaven; in Jesus they saw the foretold ruler from Judea. Here the kingdom of God was postponed to the (near) future and connected with the hope of a new creation.


16.   Summary: steps of Jesus’ admiration

S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador
S. Augustin, Quito, Ecuador

Galilee at the time of Jesus can be seen as a miniature model of the Roman Empire

as regards East-West differences, the social classes and the different cultures. Moreover, the transition from the rule of the aristocracy to the monarchy was going on there and in Rome at the time of the emperor Augustus.

What did Jesus achieve? He created the basics of a homogeneous culture – later called Christian – for Galilee, which balanced the cultural and social differences and served as an example for the whole Roman Empire.

The religious trans­formation of Jesus’ culture was realized by the apostles; the writers of the gospels turned it into properly formulated literature.

1.  Good governor in Galilee: Jesus realized his ideals of prosperity and reconciliation in the earthly Galilee, especially in the city of Tiberias, the example of the new society. A lot of people who reaped the benefits of his new policy admired him.

2.  Tetrarch elected by the citizens (Messiah) in Caesarea Philippi.

3.  Revolt: the people hoped Jesus would be the expected Messiah for all Israel.