I.       The problem

Hypothesis 1

Humans: a biological being

La Compania, Cusco, Peru
La Compania, Cusco, Peru

As a biological being, humans are part of nature and, like all other living beings, have developed over the course of evolution. The development of the human mind can therefore also only be explained appropriately on the basis of Darwin’s theory of evolution.


In 1758 Carl von Linné incorporated man into his taxonomic work Systema Naturae, which is still fundamental today. He placed humans quite naturally next to their next animal relatives, the great apes, and summarised both in an order, which he later called primates (master animals).

He defended himself against criticism related to this approach, arguing that he could find no significant difference between the skeletons of humans and those of apes.

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