13. Back to international affairs: In 35/36 CE the Roman emperor Tiberius expelled the Parthians from Armenia by Roman allies

Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring
Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring

and brought the Parthian king Artabanos III. into a tight corner with the initially successful counter-king Tiridates. Tiberius appointed Vitellius as legate in Syria and chief of the Roman armies against the Parthians.

14. Pilate closely watched the crisis in Armenia and the events in the Parthian Empire. He had to make amends with the emperor because of his close contacts with the overthrown Seian, and he had decided to do it as soon as possible.

Pilate knew the danger which came from news about Parthian victories and Roman defeats. In his eyes, the people from the Orient and in particular the Jews were fly-by-nights who needed to be shown Roman authority.

While the rebels dreamed of Parthian victories, Pilate knew the latest news, and it was good news for Rome.


11. The whole countryside (not the cities) cheered Jesus.

Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring
Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring

In the spring of 36 CE he went in triumph through Palestine. (Imagine a situation as with Napoleon, when in March 1815 he came back from Elba to France.)

Jesus’ followers gave him an enthusiastic reception, but the politically responsible men kept their distance from Jesus: the city gates stayed closed, Mk 1, 45. Unlike Napoleon Jesus was not a military leader, but his fascination was also based on the ideas of liberté, egalité, fraternité (freedom, equality, brotherhood).

Like Napoleon Jesus put an end to traditional aristocracy in favour of a monarchy where suddenly everybody had civil rights and the chance to set up in life.


8.  The hands of time were turning. The third event recorded is the first death of a ruling monarch.

Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring
Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring

In 34 CE the tetrarch Philip died, and his tetrarchy, with the newly built capital Caesarea Philippi, stayed without a leader.

9.  While the crises so far were soon under control, in 35 CE a crisis began which upset the whole eastern part of the Roman Empire.

It was the year of the death of the Armenian king Artaxias, who was a friend of Rome. The Parthian king Artabanos III. expected the decline of Rome under the emperor Tiberias in his old age; he conquered the Armenian capital Artaxata and appointed his eldest son Arsaces as king (Tacitus, Annals 6, 31ss, Josephus, Antiquities, 18, 4, 4).

Bets were made on the fall of Roman power in the East.


5. The accusation against the governor is sacrilege

Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring
Volcano Pichincha, descent to the hot spring

(1 Kings 21, 10, Mark 14, 64), a tried and tested means in the political intrigues of the time. The philosopher Socrates was also accused of blasphemy. And as legend has it the Delphinians set a trap for Aesop, the teller of fables, accused him of sacrilege and stoned him to death.

6. The toppling of Jesus was successful; his killing, if it was intended, was not. In 1 Kings 13 the king Jeroboam raised his hand against a man of God: his hand became paralysed so that he could not draw it back.

The eyes and ears of a ruler are his informers, his hands are his policemen. The police of the king in the narration of the Old Testament disobeyed the order. Maybe Herod Antipas was in the same situation, for the miracle Mark 3, 1ss hints at 1 Kings 13.


3.  in Rome Seian’s efforts towards clearing the social barriers between the knights

Volcano Pichincha, hill above the main vent
Volcano Pichincha, hill above the main vent

and the high aristocracy of the emperor led him into a personal disaster. On 18 October 31 CE Tiberius dismissed Seian and immediately had him executed. He restored the power system with the emperor at the top.

Seian’s loss of power weakened the positions of Jesus and of Pilate in Palestine. Jesus had the same power position in Galilee which had led to Seian’s downfall in Rome. This gave Jesus’ adversaries new arguments against the governor’s accumulation of power.

Pilate, as a Roman knight, came from the same social class as Seian and had officially had to cooperate with him in the past. As all of Seian’s contacts were now being checked out in Rome, Pilate had to be sure not to make any more mistakes in future.


13.   The Passion: the historical events

The conflict between the Roman and the Parthian Empires was the historical background

Volcano Pichincha, sulfur fumes
Volcano Pichincha, sulfur fumes

of the death of Jesus. In the Armenia crisis of 35/36 CE the conflict was held on the territory of the client/buffer states from Armenia to Palestine.

 In the beginning of the year 35 CE the situation in Palestine was instable because of the death of the tetrarch Philip in 34 CE and the dismissal of the governor Jesus some years before.

The Jewish and Oriental section of the populace was waiting for a sign of Roman weakness to appoint a king independent of Rome and to flee beneath the hegemony of the Parthian Empire – like two generations before, when Herod the Great had been forced to flee to Rome.

The Annals of Tacitus and the Antiquities of Josephus inform us about international affairs and regional conflict. Seeing Jesus as the governor of Galilee and identifying him with the Samaritan prophet we can understand the conditions and the series of events which led to the death of Jesus.  


When the canon of the New Testament was put together, every single apostle church

Volcano Pichincha Crater within the crater (1982 eruption)
Volcano Pichincha Crater within the crater (1982 eruption)

the Hellenistic church of Paul contributed a gospel, letters and sometimes other scriptures. The criteria of incorporation into the canon are that there must be a balanced nature of the origin from each of the four churches and pleas for the unity of the Christian church.

Therefore the gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were incorporated into the canon, along with the Acts of the Apostles, the Revelation and the collections of letters of each of the churches.

The Letter of Paul to Philemon and the Third Letter of John belonged, and still belong, to the canon because they plead for the unity of the church as a whole regarding social classes and the creed of faith.


The self-testimony of Mark about his gospel: In the narration of the Transfiguration

Pichincha, way to the crater in the crater
Pichincha, way to the crater in the crater

 (Mark 9, 2-13) Jesus takes the disciples Peter, John and James with him and leads them up a high mountain. Jesus is transfigured in an apparition and stands between the apparitions of Moses and Elijah who talk to him.

Peter would like to make three shelters (= three temples, three churches), one for Moses, one for Elijah, one for Jesus. But the vision ends, the disciples are alone with Jesus.

Jesus stands here in a row with the mythic heroes of Judaism, Moses and Elijah: he himself becomes a mythic hero. Mark also made a statement about his gospel. The Pentateuch records the story of Moses; the books of Kings and of prophets records the story of Elijah and the prophets.

In his gospel Mark records about the story of Jesus with the same authority as the scriptures of Judaism. Mark can only gain the authority this requires if he writes his gospel according to an agreement with the leaders of the apostle churches.

Therefore the founding fathers of each of the three churches were named witnesses of the major theological creeds. Mark writes right from the start for the unified Christian church and right from the start he claims canonical importance.


12.   The gospel according to Mark, the canon

In the well-known narration of Stilling the Storm (Mark 4, 35-41) Jesus and his disciples

Volcano Pichincha, crater floor
Volcano Pichincha, crater floor

are in a boat. A storm comes up, and Jesus is sleeping on a cushion. The disciples are afraid and wake Jesus up, who calms the storm down. Mark focuses the attention on Jesus: the disciples became a facade, they are helpless without Jesus.

A different situation: the disciples are important. At three places in the gospel according to Mark Jesus picked out three disciples who were going to accompany him and to witness special events: the Raising of Jairus’ Daughter (5, 37), the Transfiguration (9, 2), and the Temptation of Jesus in Gethsemane (14, 33).

The three disciples Peter, John and James were the leaders of the most important apostle churches, and the three events they witnessed and were to bear witness to in each of their churches were the most important creed of the three apostle churches:

the Raising by Jesus (church of John), the Glorification of Jesus (church of Peter) and the temptation, the human suffering of Jesus (church of James).


The religious apostle churches brought the full range of ancient folk religiousness and pagan superstition into Christianity.

Volcano Pichincha, crater floor
Volcano Pichincha, crater floor

The Christian Baptists came from the mystery religions; Peter had a partiality for astrology. Calling him a “fisher” means not his profession, but his astrological hope that the kingdom of heaven would come with the era of Pisces (spring sign of the zodiac) in his lifetime.

Early Christians used a fish as a cryptogram or symbol for Christ or Christianity before they used the cross. Christian women, who were often named Mary after Mary the Jewess, a famous alchemist of Hellenistic Egypt, brought mystic alchemist ideas into Christian thought.

During missionary work the apostle churches met and came to appreciate each other, Mark 9, 38-40. But even in the gospels the reservations against single apostle churches or groups of Christians are clear: the Judas Christians were called traitors, the church of Peter was accused of denying the Lord, the churches of James and John were accused of lusting for power, Mark 10, 35-45.

Wanting to compare himself with Jesus, Peter sank into the water like an ordinary human being, Matt 14, 30; in the narration of Stilling the Storm all disciples are helpless without Jesus.


11.   The disciples: the apostle churches and Paul

Jesus did not found the church, he did not appoint disciples.

Volcano Pichincha, crater floor
Volcano Pichincha, crater floor

It was not until after his death that religious communities developed whose leaders referred to Jesus and claimed that they were fulfilling his work as his successors.

These communities, which I call apostle churches, were rivals with one other and with other religious movements in the competitive market of religions and cults in Palestine and the Greek-speaking eastern part of the Roman Empire.

The most important apostle churches were the Baptists of the church of John, which had a special relationship with the disciples of John the Baptist; the Jewish Christian church of James, which had to distance itself from the Rome-hostile Judas of Galilee and his disciples; the spiritual church of Simon Peter, which competed with the Gnostics of Simon Magus (Acts 8).

First Paul tried to achieve church unity and to get away from the schism not only between Jewish and gentile Christians, but also between all different Christian groups. Paul claimed that Jesus and faith in him was important, not in the apostles.


In 70 CE for early Christianity the time of the apostles, inspired by the Holy Spirit and sent directly by God, was over.

Volcano Pichincha, crater floor
Volcano Pichincha, crater floor

 The authority of the church was given to the local churches and their elders. In the gospels, the Acts and the late letters, the time of Jesus and the apostles is considered to be a completed era whose heroes the Christians after 70 CE could not and did not want to compare themselves with.

As in Rome of the same time, the Christians saw the epoch as over and made a fresh start. The gospels and the Acts ask for the significance of Jesus and the apostles, for the meaning of the fall of Jerusalem.

As a model for interpretation they used the epic poetry of the pagan Ancient World. Redefining the Christian identity they accepted – now bindingly for all Christians – the Jewish culture of the Old Testament as the predecessor culture.

The two cultures were linked accordingly to the well-known system of promise and fulfilment, with promise in the Old Testament and fulfilment in the New Testament.


The years 68-70 CE marked the second turn of an era.

Volcano Pichincha, crater edge
Volcano Pichincha, crater edge

 With Nero’s forced suicide the short era of the divine emperors and the hundred-year rule of the emperors of the high aristocratic family of Augustus were over. In 69 CE, the year of four emperors, Vespasian founded the Flavian dynasty. The new emperor understood himself not as a god, but as a human being and did not deny his low origins from the Italian countryside.

In the Flavian time the epos (poetry in the style of Homer and Virgil) experienced a revival by the poets Valerius Flaccus and Statius. The time until the rule of the emperor Nero was considered to be a completed era, to which tribute was to be paid and after which a new beginning was needed.

A fresh start was undertaken by thinking back to Greek culture. The Flavian epic poets give the Romans Greek legends as an Old Testament of Roman culture (Michael von Albrecht).


10.   The eras and the turns of eras in Roman, Jewish and early Christian history in the 1st century CE

In about 30 CE a series of elderly gentleman trained under the reign

Volcano Pichincha, sulfur fumes
Volcano Pichincha, sulfur fumes

of Augustus were ruling in Rome and in Palestine. From the Isle of Capri the 70-year-old emperor Tiberius directed events in Rome. In the capital of the empire the knight Aelius Seianus, the chief minister of state, was in control of everything.

In Palestine the tetrarchs Herod Antipas and Philip had ruled the northern territories for more than 30 years. For more than 20 years Antipas had been supported by the governor Jesus.

Judaea and Samaria were under direct Roman administration as the province Judaea, and since 26 CE the knight Pontius Pilate had ruled with a rod of iron. In the following years this peaceful idyll of Augustean stability and Middle Eastern joie de vivre was about to be shaken by a line of events, in the course of which the rulers were completely exchanged.

In the years 36/37 CE responsibility for the political order was handed over to a new generation of political leaders.


Planning and building the new capital of Tiberias was the masterpiece of the government of Jesus.

Volcano Pichincha, crater in the crater
Volcano Pichincha, crater in the crater

For this brilliant feat Jesus got the honorary title tekton (tektwn). This Greek word is usually translated as “carpenter”, but here it means “architect”. Those building a new city or a new capital would like make many things better than before: they would like to leave old things and ways behind.

The inspiration behind this was the idea of the New Jerusalem. In the Jewish capital Jerusalem the great Temple, the house of God, had been under construction for more than forty years.

Herod Antipas and Jesus wanted to build a city for the people without forgetting to worship the divine powers. The new capital was built in record time, if not in three days as in John 2, 19.

From the year 20 CE there are the first coins of Herod Antipas with the inscription Tiberias and the reed, which was a symbol of the city by the Sea of Galilee. The coins celebrated the new capital.