2.     Childhood, education

In 24/23 BCE Jesus was born and underwent a typical aristocratic education.

Cotopaxi Volcano 5897 m, Ecuador
Cotopaxi Volcano 5897 m, Ecuador

Until he was seven, he lived in the care of his mother and her servants and was looked after with brothers, sisters and other children.

At the age of seven Jesus started at an elementary school at the court of Herod the Great, where he was educated with the sons of Herod and other sons of aristocrats. Here Jesus met Manaen, the later Christian presbyter in Antiochia, Acts 13, 1.

Whereas in his mother’s house Aramaic and Greek were spoken, in the school only Greek was spoken. The syllabus included recitations of Homer and other classical authors of Greek antiquity, reading, writing, calculating, geometry, playing music, and physical education.


4.  The Armenia crisis leads us into the time when the Samaritan prophet

Oldtimerbus, Quito, Ecuador
Oldtimerbus, Quito, Ecuador

appeared, Josephus, Ant. 18,4,1. The death of Jesus as a Messiah and the riot over the Samaritan prophet must be the same event. In 36 CE Jesus was crucified as the Sama­ritan prophet.

5.  The proclamation of Jesus as Messiah in Caesarea Philippi is only plausible if Jesus was qualified for the job as a governor by his education or by being from an aristocratic family.

6.  Therefore, this is how I understand the Temptation (Matt 4, Luke 4): in 6 CE, in the crisis of the Herodians, when Archelaus in Jerusalem lost his job and was banished to Gaul, Herod Antipas offered Jesus the job of governor of Galilee, and Jesus accepted the offer and took over the duty. Later the church claimed that Jesus had refused the offer.


1.     Reconstruction

Which premises should we start out on, when we reconstruct

Oldtimerbus, Quito, Ecuador
Oldtimerbus, Quito, Ecuador

the biography of Jesus? Which basic conclusions can be made?

1.  Jesus was crucified as a Messiah by Pilate. This is the most thoroughly proven fact in the biography of Jesus. A sensible recon­struction of his biography can only start from this point.

2. Jesus was proclaimed Messiah in Caesarea Philippi, Mark 8,29. It makes sense only after the death of the tetrarch Philip in 34 CE.

3. The Armenia crisis happened in 35 CE. The people in the Orient, who were hostile to Rome, saw their chance to fight the Romans and hoped for Parthian support.

It would be plausible if Jesus was proclaimed Messiah by Parthian-backed people as a king to counter the Romans and the Herodians.


The methodological points to start my solution are the following:

Panecillo, Quito, Ecuador
Panecillo, Quito, Ecuador

1.  Accepting an anthropological constant (similar human behaviour 2000 years ago and today), refusing Jesus’ singularity,

2. Paying careful attention to the contemporary historical back­ground,

3.  Accepting that the religiosity of Antiquity is the basis for early Christianity,

4.  Re-evaluating the gospels as poetry and part of the literary discourse of the 1st century CE,

5. Accepting that historical processes can be described logically and through argument.


Hermann Samuel Reimarus (1694-1768) exposed this contradiction: he applied the criteria

Old Town, Quito, Ecuador
Old Town, Quito, Ecuador

of plausibility and agreement with sources to examine the biblical story of Jesus. He proved 1. that the biblical narratives of Jesus and his disciples are often not plausible, and 2. that there are a lot of contradictions between the teachings of Jesus and those of the apostles, and so of the church.

Reimarus recommended the following solution, which is critical of the church: that the resurrection was a fraud by the disciples, who wanted to continue making their living as itinerant preachers.

The problem brought up by Reimarus was accepted as a scientific /scholarly problem and led to the German Leben-Jesu-Forschung of the 19th century. But his solution was rightly rejected by subsequent scholars.



The Bible tells the history of Jesus and his disciples in the style of contemporary poetry. It mixes historical facts

Old Town, Quito, Ecuador
Old Town, Quito, Ecuador

with fictional material such as anecdotes and miracles, and at the important places supernatural powers and persons are brought into play to substantiate the significance of the events.

Until the Enlighten­ment people intuitively understood this way of telling stories about Jesus: nobody saw a contradiction between religious truth and historical facts.

In the modern sciences since the 16th century the idea of truth has been connected with verifiability and repeatability in experiments. In the historical sciences since the Renaissance, and especially in the 18th century, plausibility and agreement with sources have gained acceptance as criteria of truth.


3. In 36 CE the Armenia crisis happened and Roman power in the Orient was on the edge.

Equator diploma 15.8.1989
Equator diploma 15.8.1989

Here Jesus took over the leadership of a messianic revolt against the Romans. Pilate crucified all the leaders of the revolt, Luke 23, 32, Josephus, Ant. 18, 4, 1, whereas he spared the supporters.

4. A famous rite in the antique mysteries is the rite to die and to rise again. This rite and the connected considerations were transferred to Jesus.

5.  Not at all. The tales of the miracles are parables in the tradition of the literature of antiquity: they interpret the gospel of Jesus.


Today a new theme begins:

Was Jesus Governor of Galilee?

A New Approach to the Historical Jesus

Equatorial Monument near Quito, Ecuador
Equatorial Monument near Quito, Ecuador

Quick info

Six questions

1.  How old was Jesus as he began his public ministry, 30 as according to Luke or 50 as according to John?

2. Why was Jesus revered?

3.  Why did Jesus die on the Cross?

4.  How did faith in the resurrection develop after the death of Jesus?

5.  Did the Gospels tell of the miracles of Jesus as historical facts?

6.  Did Jesus come from the lower middle class?

Here are the correct answers:


The mind as an evolutionary innovation was made possible by a functional change of the brain,

Puno, Peru
Puno, Peru

which acquired the ability to communicate within a network, and by a functional change of this network, which facilitated the motivation of the individuals involved and the control of their instincts.

The motivational impulses in the network, which bestow vital energy and without which individuals and social groups are not viable, have been identified as the nucleus of the human mind. The development up to the beginnings of the mind also takes place within the framework of Darwin’s theory of evolution. However, in the end, there is a new stage of existence.

The intellectually gifted human being has emergent characteristics for whose description, beyond biological theory, a separate set of rules is required.


VI.     Summary

Hypothesis 22

The evolution of brain and mind

Rail journey to Lake Titicaca, Peru
Rail journey to Lake Titicaca, Peru

The task at hand was to present the evolution of the mind in accordance with Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Previous attempts at solutions based on the co-evolution of brain and mind have been rejected because the mind assumes the brain has already been completed developed (both factually and temporally). In addition, the emergent qualities of the human mind still cannot play a role on the biological level of brain development.

The proposed solution is based on a succession of the evolution of brain and mind. The development of the brain with the stages of prenatal growth, postnatal growth, and the networked brain can be plausibly explained based on the Darwinian theory of evolution without using the influence of mental or cultural factors as a justification.

The influence of the mind would then be an additional and not necessarily an explanatory cause to be rejected according to the principle of Ockham’s razor.


Hypothesis 21


Rail journey to Machu Picchu, Peru
Rail journey to Machu Picchu, Peru

After the beginnings of the human mind, the development of human culture begins. However, this is no longer our topic.

How the human mind develops, what laws it follows, and what dependence there is on the biological nature of human beings – these are exciting philosophical questions that cannot be discussed here.


The new level of existence of the spiritual requires a different set of rules,

Schoolchildren, Cusco, Peru
Schoolchildren, Cusco, Peru

one which is developed by the humanities and social sciences. The appropriateness of this must be continually re-examined in detail.

(The distinction between levels of existence and the phenomenon of emergence are dealt with in philosophical literature in the context of the theory of strata or stratification theory, of which Nicolai Hartmann is the best-known recent exponent, cf. N. Hartmann, Der Aufbau der realen Welt. Grundriß der allgemeinen Kategorien­lehre, Berlin 1940, 3rd edition 1964.)

In the 3rd hypothesis, I rejected the concept of co-evolution of culture and brain. There is another reason for this rejection: Culture as an emergent characteristic belongs to the level of existence of the spiritual. That is why it could not even be present when the brain, which belongs to the biological stage of existence, developed.

Here I have shown where the boundary between the spheres of the biological and the spiritual runs.


Just like the physicalists and the vitalists argued about the sovereignty of interpretation of biological phenomena around the year 1900,

Rail journey to Lake Titicaca, Peru
Rail journey to Lake Titicaca, Peru

there is currently a dispute about the emergence of spiritual phenomena. Just like physics was around the year 1900, biology is now more highly regarded as an exact natural science than the social sciences and the humanities, which are often disputed.

Just like physics was around the year 1900, biology is now the leading science. But like the physicalists around the year 1900, biologists of today fail to describe the more complex level of existence because they do not include the emergence associated with the new complexity in their calculations.

The biological theory system is only marginally suitable for the description of mental phenomena.


The theory of emergence offered the solution.

Puno, Peru
Puno, Peru

In terms of the concept, Ernst Mayr writes:

Systems almost always have the peculiarity that properties of the whole cannot be derived (not even in theory) from even the most complete knowledge of the components, regardless of whether they are considered individually or in other partial combinations.

This emergence of new qualities in an entity is called emergence and is often used in an attempt to explain such difficult phenomena as life, mind and consciousness. In fact, emergence is no less typical of inorganic systems.
(Mayr 2002, p. 52)

Biological organisms are complex systems with new properties that require a new set of rules, namely an independent biological theory. Achim Stephan mentions four distinguishing features of emergent theories in his book on emergence (German: Emergenz, Paderborn, 3rd ed. 2007, pp. 14 – 25):

1. Naturalism: only natural factors play a role in evolution
2. Innovation: something genuinely new is created
3. Systemic properties
4. Hierarchy of the levels of existence: especially the areas of the material, the biological, and the spiritual.


Hypothesis 20


Old Town of Quito, Ecuador
Old Town of Quito, Ecuador

With the network, a new level of existence beyond the biological sphere can be achieved (emergence).

Just as biological facts cannot be adequately described with the theories of physics, mental or cultural facts cannot be adequately described with the body of rules applicable to biology.


At the end of the 19th century there was a conflict in the explanation of biological phenomena between physicalists, who wanted to describe all biological phenomena with the well-respected theories of physics, and the vitalists, who emphasised the inadequacy of physical theories in the description of biological processes and brought into play the idea of a sentient soul of organisms, which contradicted prevailing naturalistic principles.

Neither the physicalists nor the vitalists were able to prevail in the end. The vitalists failed in their non-naturalistic approach. But even the physicalists could not adequately describe biological phenomena. Since biological organisms were very complex systems that produced new characteristics, the extent to which the theories of physics could be applied was limited.