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The English word leadership refers to the ability to motivate and lead others.

Juliaca, Peru
Juliaca, Peru


Leadership is not only expected from a president of the US but rather from all those who hold leading positions in politics, business, and society.

This ability was clearly demonstrated, e.g. by successful ancient military leaders such as Alexander the Great or Julius Caesar, who personally motivated their soldiers and led them into battle.

Contemporary historians were impressed by how military leaders were able to transfer their own determination to win to their soldiers in rousing speeches, how they were able to motivate despondent or anxious soldiers, in order to carry out decisive attacks.

In addition to open motivation, there are other ways in which people rely on the network with their fellow human beings. People need cultural contact with their fellow human beings in order to feel validated as cultural beings with their values, ideas and behaviours.

Berger and Luckmann showed in what is now a classic study, The Social Construction of Reality, exactly how much people are shaped by cultural networks and to what extent they depend on it throughout their lives.

(In philosophical literature, a distinction is often made between the personal, the objective and the objectified mind as the mind of the individual, the mind, the culture of a social group, e.g. of a people, or an age and the mind that has become tangible in works of art, science, etc.

The beginnings of the human mind, in accordance with the concept presented here, clearly lie in the objective mind i.e. in the cultural behaviours and mental conceptions of the social groups whose members formed the network. The ability of an individual to actively and consciously influence the group mind (personal mind) presupposed experience with the network and arose later.)

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