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If the brain is the biological seat of the mind, the two are therefore not identical to each other.

Parade, Cusco, Peru, 27. 8. 1989
Parade, Cusco, Peru, 27. 8. 1989


Moreover, the mind has its own identity, which must be explored and described. The basic form of the mind or culture arose in a special historical situation. With the mind a new level of existence was born,

emergent characteristics of individuals and social groups arose; characteristics that can no longer be adequately described with the biological theory framework but which require the use of humanities or social science theories.

In The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition, Michael Tomasello drew attention to what, on an evolutionary scale, was a short period of up to 250,000 years, during which man’s cultural development has taken place up to this day.

Such rapid development could not have genetic causes but rather only cultural ones that are connected with cultural learning. Tomasello writes,

that humans have a biologically inherited capacity for cultural life. This faculty, one that I’ve described as an ability to understand con-specifics as intentional and gifted actors, comes into play from the age of about nine months (…)

The evolutionary conditions under which this unique socio-cognitive ability developed are currently unknown. However, one possible hypothesis is that it occurred only with modern Homo sapiens and that it really is the main cognitive characteristic that distinguishes modern humans from premodern humans.
(German: Michael Tomasello 2010: Die kulturelle Entwicklung des mensch­lichen Denkens, Frank­furt/M., 3. ed., p. 74)

With the solution presented here, I also set myself the task of naming what Tomasello considered to be currently unknown evolutionary conditions for the cultural ability of humans for the first time, with regard to the biological prerequisites of the brain and the foundations for the development of the human mind and culture.

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