The Iliad begins with the transgression of God by a siege army

Rapida, Galapagos
Rapida, Galapagos

and the divine punishment for it. The epic ends with a further violation of a divine commandment, namely the refusal of a burial, ending and the funeral ceremonies being carried out.


The outrage against God and the dispute between allies at the beginning are countered by reconciliation with the divine commandment and the respectful treatment of the enemy at the end.


The honourable burial of the dead hero as execution of a divine commandment is the central religious motive of the Iliad, in this respect the epic concludes conciliatory.

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