None of the conditions for the origin of the Old Testament existed in pre-Roman times. There was insufficient material prosperity;

Gerizim, ancient Samaritan temple
Gerizim, ancient Samaritan temple

there was no audience trained in literary reading; there was no freedom of opinion or atmosphere of constructive debate; the references to the history of Herod’s time would be inexplicable; the intertextual references to Greek and Roman literature would be incomprehensible; Judaism was not yet unified.

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