II. Previous history
Literature: Baumgarten, Roland: Heiliges Wort und Heilige Schrift bei den Griechen. Hieroi Logoi und verwandte Erscheinungen, Tubingen 1998 – Rostovtzeff, M.: Caravan Cities, Oxford 1932 – Ziegler, Karl-Heinz: Die Beziehungen zwischen Rom und dem Partherreich. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Völkerrechts, Wiesbaden 1964
II 1 Pastoralists and Merchants
The traditional master narrative about the Jews in pre-Roman times states: after the destruction of the small states of Israel and Judea,
the Babylonian exile, the return of the Jews under the Persian king Cyrus and the Maccabean revolt, the Jews were ruled by the Hasmonean kings until Palestine was conquered by the Romans. They preserved the Old Testament writings, their Yahweh-based monotheism and their traditional religious culture with service in the temple and animal sacrifices. They maintained contact with the Jewish diasporas in Babylon and Egypt.
My thesis about the Jews in pre-Roman times states that Old Testament Judaism with the law, prophets and Yahweh-based monotheism did not exist in pre-Roman times.